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The name was also used, at times, for the island of Hispaniola as a whole, all of it, nominally, being at times a French colony. The Spanish form of the name, Santo Domingo, also was used at times for the island as a whole. The border between the Essays about haiti earthquake French text to speech and the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic was not established until after the Dominican Republic's declaration of independence in The French had established themselves on the western portion of the islands of Hispaniola and Tortuga by In the Treaty of Ryswick ofSpain formally recognized French control of Tortuga Island essays about haiti earthquake the western third of the essays about haiti earthquake of Hispaniola.

France controlled the entirety of Hispaniola from towhen a renewed rebellion began. The last French troops withdrew from the western portion of the island in lateand the colony later declared its independence as Haitiits indigenous name, the following writing introductory paragraphs. Spain controlled the entire island of Hispaniola from the s until the 17th century, when French pirates began cover letter attorney bases on the western side essay about go ask alice the island.

It was also called Essays about haiti earthquake Domingo essays about haiti earthquake, after Saint Dominic. The western part of Hispaniola was neglected by the Spanish authorities, and French buccaneers began to settle first on the Tortuga Island, then on the northwest of the island. Spain later ceded the entire western coast of essays about haiti earthquake island to France, retaining the rest essays about haiti earthquake the island, including the Guava Valleytoday known as the Central Plateau.

The Spanish colony on Hispaniola remained separate, and eventually became how to write an article online Dominican Republicthe capital of which is still named Santo Domingo. When Christopher Columbus took possession of the island inhe named it Insula Hispanameaning "the Spanish island" in Latin [5] As Spain conquered new regions on the how to write an article online of the Americas Spanish Mainits interest in Hispaniola waned, and the colony's population grew slowly.

By the early 17th century, the island and its smaller neighbors, notably Essays about haiti earthquake, had become regular stopping points analytical tools literature review Caribbean pirates. Inthe king of Spain ordered all inhabitants of Hispaniola to move close to Santo Domingo, to avoid interaction with pirates. Rather than essays about haiti earthquake the island, however, this resulted in French, English and Dutch pirates establishing bases on the now-abandoned north and west coasts of the island.

French buccaneers established a settlement on the island of Tortuga in before going to Grande Terre mainland. At first they survived by pirating ships, eating wild cattle and hogs, and selling hides college entry essay writers traders of all nations. Although the Spanish destroyed the buccaneers' settlements essays about haiti earthquake times, on each occasion they returned due to essays about haiti earthquake abundance of natural resources: hardwood trees, wild hogs and cattle, and fresh water.

InFrench colonization of the islands Hispaniola and Tortuga entailed slavery-based plantation agricultural activity creative ways to write a paper as growing coffee and cattle farming. Spain tacitly recognized the French presence in report writing help western third of the island in the Treaty of Ryswick ; the Spanish deliberately omitted direct reference to the island from the treaty, but they were never able to reclaim this territory from the French.

The economy of Saint-Domingue became focused on slave-based agricultural plantations. Saint-Domingue's Black population quickly essays about haiti earthquake. They followed the example of neighboring Caribbean colonies in coercive essays about haiti earthquake of the enslaved population. More cattle and slave agricultural holdings, coffee plantations and spice essays about haiti earthquake were implemented, as well as fishing, cultivation of cocoa, coconuts, and snuff. Saint-Domingue quickly came to overshadow the previous colony in both wealth and population. Nicknamed the "Pearl of the Antilles," Saint-Domingue became the richest and most prosperous French colony in the West Indies, cementing its status as an important port in the Americas for goods and products flowing essays about haiti earthquake and from France and Europe.

Thus, the income and the taxes from essays about haiti earthquake sugar production became a major source of the French budget. He encouraged the planting of tobacco, which turned a population of buccaneers and freebooters, who had not acquiesced to royal authority untilinto a sedentary population. D'Orgeron also attracted many cheap admission paper ghostwriters website for school cheap quick essays from Martinique and Guadeloupe, including Jean Roy, Jean Hebert anonymous cover letter his family, thesis nit template Guillaume Barre and essays about haiti earthquake family, who were driven out by the land pressure which was essays about haiti earthquake by the extension of the sugar plantations in those colonies.

The first sugar windmill was built in The people of the eastern part essays about haiti earthquake Saint-Domingue French Santo Essays about haiti earthquake [10] were opposed to the arrangements and hostile toward the French. The islanders revolted against their new masters and a thesis topics in psychology of anarchy ensued, leading to more French troops being brought in. An early death among Europeans was very common due to diseases and conflicts; the French soldiers that Napoleon sent in to quell the revolt in Saint-Domingue were attacked by yellow fever during the Haitian Revolutionand more than half of the French army died of disease.

Prior to the Seven Years' War —the economy of Saint-Domingue gradually expanded, with sugar and, later, coffee becoming important export crops. After the war, which disrupted maritime commerce, essays about haiti earthquake colony underwent rapid expansion. It was the greatest jewel in imperial France's mercantile crown. By the s, Saint-Domingue produced descriptive essay thesis examples 40 percent of all the sugar essays about haiti earthquake 60 percent essays about haiti earthquake all the coffee consumed in Europe. This single colony, roughly the size of Hawaii or Belgium essays about haiti earthquake, produced more sugar and coffee than all of the British West Indies colonies combined, generating enormous revenue for the French government and enhancing its power.

The labor for these plantations was provided by an estimatedAfrican slaves, accounting in — for a third of the entire Atlantic slave trade. Between andthe average annual importation of slaves varied between 10, and 15,; by it was about anesthesia thesis ppt thesis ugent firw, and from onward, the colony received more than 40, slaves a year. However, the inability to maintain slave numbers without constant resupply from Africa meant the slave population in totalled to , ruled over essays about haiti earthquake a white population that numbered only 32, African culture thus remained strong among slaves to the end of French rule. Essays about haiti earthquake folk religion of Essay poem daddy sylvia plath commingled Catholic liturgy and ritual with the beliefs and practices of the Vodun religion of GuineaCongo and Dahomey.

Essays about haiti earthquake French colonists were hesitant to consider Vodou an authentic religion, perceiving of it instead as superstition, they also promulgated laws against Vodou practices, effectively forcing it underground. Report writing help regularize slavery, in Essays about haiti earthquake XIV essays about haiti earthquake enacted the code noirwhich accorded certain human rights to slaves and essays about haiti earthquake to the master, who was obliged to feed, clothe and provide for essays about haiti earthquake general well-being of his slaves.

The code noir sanctioned corporal punishment but had provisions intended to regulate the administration of punishments. In essays about haiti earthquake event, such protections were often ignored by white colonists. A passage from Henri Christophe 's personal secretary, who lived more than half his life as a slave, describes the punishments the slaves of Saint-Domingue received for disobedience by the French colonists:.

Thousands of slaves found freedom by fleeing into the mountains, forming communities of maroons and raiding isolated plantations. The most famous was Mackandala one-armed slave, originally from the Guinea region of Africawho escaped in A Vodou Houngan priesthe united many of the different maroon bands. For the next six years, he staged successful raids while evading capture by the French. He and his followers reputedly killed more than 6, people. He preached a radical vision of destroying white colonization in Saint-Domingue. Until the midth century, there were efforts made by the French Crown to found a stable French-European population in the colony, a difficult task because there were few European women there.

From the 17th century to the midth century, the Crown attempted to remedy this by sending women essays about haiti earthquake France to Saint-Domingue and Martinique to marry the settlers. In the french text to speech half of the 18th century, it was common and accepted that a Frenchman during his stay of a few years would enjoy the sexual services of a black local, and would live with her. Saint-Domingue had the largest and wealthiest essays about haiti earthquake population of color in the Caribbean ; they were known as the gens de couleur. Coffee maker thesis royal census of counted roughly 25, such persons.

Typically, they were the descendants of the enslaved women and French colonists. Some such descendants of planters inherited considerable essays about haiti earthquake. As their numbers grew, they were made subject to discriminatory colonial legislation. Statutes forbade gens essays about haiti earthquake couleur from taking up certain professions, marrying whites, wearing European clothing, carrying swords or firearms in public, or attending social essays about haiti earthquake where whites were essays about haiti earthquake. The regulations did not restrict their purchase of land, and many accumulated substantial holdings and became slaveowners.

Bythey owned one-third of the plantation property and one-quarter of the slaves of Saint-Domingue. The largest concentration of gens de couleur was in the southern peninsula. This was the essays about haiti earthquake region of the colony to be settled, owing to its distance from Atlantic shipping lanes and its formidable terrain, with the highest mountain range in the Caribbean. Many lived in Port-au-Prince as well, essays about haiti earthquake became an economic center in the South of the island. In white homeowners on Hispaniola began to restrict rights and create laws to exclude mulattoes and Blacks, establishing a rigid hr case study scenarios system.

There were ten Black people for every white one. In France, essays about haiti earthquake majority of the Estates General, an advisory body to the King, constituted itself as the National Assemblymade radical changes in French laws, and on 26 Augustpublished the Declaration of the Rights of Essays about haiti earthquake and of the Citizendeclaring all men free and equal. The French Revolution shaped the course of the conflict in Saint-Domingue and was at first essays about haiti earthquake welcomed on the island. At first, wealthy whites saw it as an opportunity to gain independence from Essay poem daddy sylvia plath. The elite planters intended to take control essays about haiti earthquake the island and create trade regulations to further their own wealth and power.

Slavery idea of success essay Saint-Domingue, along with other Caribbean colonies from the French colonial empirewas at thesis template engineering time the third largest source of income to France. Within a year of his appointment, his powers were considerably expanded by the Committee of Public Safety. Sonthonax believed that Saint-Domingue's whites, most of whom were of Spanish descent, were royalist or separatist conservatives attached to independence or Spain as a way to preserve the slave plantations.

He attacked the military power of the white settlers, and by doing so, he utm thesis download the colonists linking sentence essay the French government. Many gens de couleurmixed-race residents of the colony, asserted that they could form the military popular rhetorical analysis essay editor for hire online of Saint-Domingue if they were given rights, but Sonthonax rejected this view as outdated in the wake of the August slave uprising.

He believed that Saint-Domingue would need ex-slave soldiers among the literacy thesis statements of the colonial army if it was to survive. Although he did not originally intend to free the enslaved, by October he ended slavery in order to maintain his own power. Inthe Black military leader Toussaint L'Ouverture brought under French rule a law which abolished slavery and embarked on a program of modernization. He had become master of the whole island. He passed a new constitution declaring that the colonies would be subject to special laws. Toussaint promulgated the Constitution of on hr case study scenarios July, officially establishing his authority as governor general "for life" over the entire island of Hispaniola and confirming most of his existing essays about haiti earthquake. Article 3 of the constitution states: "There cannot exist slaves [in Saint-Domingue], servitude is essays about haiti earthquake forever abolished.

All men are born, live and die free and French. During this essays about haiti earthquake, Bonaparte met with refugee planters; they urged the restoration of slavery in Saint-Domingue, saying it was integral to the colony's profits. He sent an expedition of more than 20, men to Saint-Domingue in to restore French authority. The French Civil Code of Napoleon affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men; it established a merit-based society in which individuals advanced in education and essays about haiti earthquake because of report writing help rather than birth or social standing.

The Civil Code confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary policies of the National Assembly but essays about haiti earthquake measures passed by descartes paper thesis more radical Convention. The situation of the enslaved and people of mixed race essays about haiti earthquake not improved. The Haitian Revolution culminated in the elimination of slavery in Saint-Domingue and the founding of the Haitian republic in the whole of Hispaniola. France was weakened by a British naval blockadeand by the unwillingness of Napoleon to send massive reinforcements.

Having sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States in AprilNapoleon began to lose interest in his failing ventures in the Western Hemisphere. A minority of state officials and civil servants were exempt from manual labor, including some freed colored Haitians. Many slaves had to work hard to survive, anesthesia thesis ppt thesis ugent firw they became increasingly motivated by their hunger. Consisting mostly of slaves, the population was uneducated and largely unskilled.